The OS Full Form Is “Operating System”. An operating system is software. It’s system software that connects users to hardware. In simple words, the operating system provides interaction between the user and hardware.
The main purpose of an OS (OS Full Form-Operating System) is to allow people to interact with the computer & execute applications without having any knowledge of the hardware.
It interfaces with the computer’s hardware, such as –
- Input/Output devices
For Example –
In a laptop or computer, the hardware components includes –
- CPU (the brain)
- Input/output devices (keyboard, mouse, printer, scanner)
- RAM (main memory)
- Secondary memory (hard disk)
When accessing the system, we are not directly interacting with these devices. Instead, the operating system (OS) acts as an interface through which we interact.
The Operating system manages hardware, executes applications, organizes files, and provides a user-friendly interface. It makes computer use smooth and resource-efficient.
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Why There is Need Of Operating System(OS)
Have you ever wondered without Operating System(OS) what would be the scenario?
Without an Operating System (OS Full Form-Operating System) , things would be different. Users must build applications for each hardware device.
For example, when printing a document, a user would need to write a specific program for the printer to understand the print command.
They would need a software to run a CPU process. User-hardware interaction is difficult.
Without an operating system, users may directly access physical devices, causing conflicts. No one can govern hardware sharing, thus if one person is using a device, another may not be able to use it.
Operating systems are crucial to these issues. It simplifies and standardizes user-hardware interaction as an interface.
The operating system controls resources, facilitates device sharing, and provides a seamless and secure user experience. Thus, the operating system simplifies and improves user-hardware interaction.
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What is the Functionality Of Operating Systems?
1) Resource Management
The operating system manages system resources, such as CPU, memory, and devices, ensuring their efficient allocation and utilization. It acts as a resource governor, determining how much hardware is provided to each user or process, thus preventing overload and maintaining system performance.
2) Storage Management
The operating system handles the management of secondary storage devices, like hard disks. File systems (Example, NTFS, CIFS, NFS) organize and store data effectively. This includes managing file allocation, access permissions, and data retrieval, ensuring data is stored securely and can be retrieved when needed.
3) Process Management
The operating system manages processes, which are programs in execution. It handles process scheduling and CPU management, determining how processes are executed on the CPU through various scheduling algorithms. The operating system ensures fair utilization of CPU resources and efficient execution of multiple processes concurrently.
4) Memory Management
The operating system oversees the allocation and deallocation of memory (RAM) to processes. It is responsible for memory allocation, bringing processes into memory, swapping them out when necessary, and preventing memory conflicts between processes. Memory management ensures efficient utilization of limited RAM resources.
5) Security and Privacy
The operating system provides security measures to protect the system and user data. This includes user authentication mechanisms, access control to files and resources, encryption of sensitive information, and preventing unauthorized access or interference between processes.
Types Of Operating Systems?
Windows (which almost all of us use) has gained popularity due to its focus on convenience. It has acquired a significant market share, reaching up to 95% at one point. Users often find Windows operating systems pre-installed on their laptops or desktops, emphasizing the importance of convenience.
However, as technology is advancing, demands of users have increased. The operating systems have faced more complex problems. Users now seek faster execution times and higher throughput. Throughput refers to the number of tasks executed per unit of time. As a result, operating systems need to provide high throughput along with convenience.
Linux has gained traction in the market as it offers not only convenience but also higher throughput. Its market share has grown to around 82% in recent years, highlighting the significance of throughput in operating systems.
Also Read : What Is Mount Point In Linux
Apple’s macOS, known as Macintosh, has its own operating system. While convenience remains a factor, these real-life examples show how both convenience and throughput play crucial roles in the market presence and adoption of operating systems.
Generation Of Operating System
|Generation||Key Features and Advancements||Examples|
|1st Generation||Manchester Mark 1, IBM 701|
|2nd Generation||IBM System/360, CTSS|
|3rd Generation||UNIX, IBM OS/360, Multics|
|4th Generation||Windows, Mac OS, Linux|
|5th Generation||Android, iOS, real-time operating systems (RTOS)|
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