What Is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) ?

What Is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) ?

What Is Object Oriented Programming

What Is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) ?

What Is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) ?

What Is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) ?


What Is Object Oriented Programming (OOPs) ?

Object-oriented programming is a programming language paradigm. In OOPs, everything is represented as an object and a class rather than functions and logic. It always revolves around data.
OOPs is widely used in software development for many reasons. One of the main reasons is the reusability of code, scalability, and efficiency.
Also it is used in many popular programming languages such as Python, Java, and C++, as well as in many other programming languages.
Also Read: What Is Java Programming

Important Concept of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) 

What Is Class?

In object-oriented programming, a class is a blueprint for creating objects. It defines a set of attributes (data) and methods (functions) that objects created from the class will have.
Classes determine the types of data variables and methods needed to create objects and define their behavior. It allows for inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism and abstraction, which are key concepts of object-oriented programming.
Let’s take an example of the “Person” class, the attributes (name, age, and address) describe the properties that each person object will have.  The methods define the actions that a person object can perform.
So basically, classes are fundamental building blocks in OOPs and provide the structure and behavior for creating objects that represent real-world entities.
Syntax of class in java programming :
class <class_name>{ field; method; }

What is an object?

In OOPs an object is a specific representation of an entity in the real world.Each object created from a class contains its own set of attribute values which describe it’s properties or characteristics. The benefits of objects are that we can create many objects of the same class as well as it provides the benefit of modularity and data hiding.
Let’s take an example: we create a Parrot class, and the breed, name, and age attributes describe the properties of a specific parrot object. The wings, tail, and curved bill methods describe the behaviors or actions that the parrot object can perform, objects determine the behavior of the class. When we call an object, we are asking the object to invoke or execute one of its methods.
When an object is created, it is allocated its own memory space, which stores its attribute values and methods. This means that each object created from the same class can have its own unique values for its attributes, even though they are all instances of the same class.
For example, you could create two instances of the Parrot class, one representing a green parrot named “Greeny” and another representing a blue parrot named “Bluish”, These two objects have their own values for the breed, name, and age attributes, even though they are both instances of the same “Parrot” class.
Syntax of object in java programming :
ClassName object = new ClassName();

So let’s start by understanding the concepts of inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation and abstraction


When one object acquires the property of another, this is called inheritance. Inheritance is the important part of object-oriented programming.Inheritance allows a class to inherit properties and methods from a parent class. This allows developers to create a hierarchy of classes where child classes can inherit properties and methods from parent classes and can also add new properties and methods.
There are five types of inheritance 

  • Single Level Inheritance – The child class  inherits the property of the parent class is called single inheritance.
  • Multiple Inheritance – A single child class inherits the property from two or more parent classes.
  • Multilevel Inheritance – A class inherits from a class that itself inherits from another class.
  • Hierarchical Inheritance – Multiple subclasses inherit a single parent class.
  • Hybrid Inheritance – A combination of multiple inheritance and multilevel inheritance are called hybrid inheritance


Polymorphism refers to the ability of a variable, function, Object or method to take on multiple forms (more than one form ).
For Example, A Women can play many roles in her life, such as a daughter, sister, mother, or wife. Here, Women is Object, and roles are Polymorphism.
In Polymorphism, methods in the child class have a similar name as the method in the parent class.
In Java, there are two types of Polymorphism 

  1. Compile-time Polymorphism (Method Overloading)
  2. Run-Time Polymorphism (Method Overriding)

What is method overloading & method overriding ?
Method Overloading – Multiple methods with the same name but different parameters are called method overloading or compile-time Polymorphism.
Method Overriding – Same method name as declared in the parent class is called method overriding. In other words, the child class has the same method as declared in the parent class or also called run-time Polymorphism.


The wrapping or binding of data into a single unit is called Encapsulation. Encapsulation hides the internal data of inside objects; that’s why it is also called data hiding.Basically, it’s simply how you design a Java class,you bind a set of attributes that store the current state of the object with a set of methods using these attributes.
A real-life example of encapsulation is a capsule which is mixed with several medicines.
The benefit of encapsulation is it allows developers to write less error-prone code. Because the internal workings of the class are hidden from the rest of the code.


It is a process of hiding the implementation details from users and giving them access to data information only. By doing this, we can simplify complexity and help improve user usability.
A real example of abstraction in our everyday lives is a car. We just see it as a mode of transport, but its inner workings, such as wiring or spare parts, are abstracted and hidden away from us.

Why is Object Oriented programming used in various industries ? And what is the future of OOPs?

OOPs are widely used in various industries because it provides so many benefits, as we discuss at the start of the blog, such as abstraction, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, inheritance, code efficiency, code reusability, and so on.
Object-oriented programming is not the only paradigm; there are many other programming paradigms, such as functional programming and procedural programming. Depending on their specific needs and requirements, some industries also use those programming paradigms.
The future of OOPs looks bright, as it is expected to continue to play an important role in the software development industry. Whether you are a senior programmer or just starting out in programming, understanding the principles and benefits of OOP will benefit your programming career.



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